20 de dezembro de 2012

U9L4: Verbos irregulares, Lista dos verbos irregulares


Verbos irregulares

Os verbos irregulares não seguem regra quanto á formação do simple past e do past participle.

Lista dos verbos irregulares



Na lista adiante se encontram todos os verbos irregulares ingleses. Nela se identifica o infinitivo e o presente (ambos tem a mesma forma, salvo que o infinitivo vem precedido da partícula to, assim como o passado simples e o participio. Em alguns casos, o verbo tem duas possíveis formas no passado ou no futuro que aparecem indicadas. Em outros casos, o verbo não tem infinitivo (são alguns verbos modais que na tabela aparecem sem a partícula to). Estes verbos não seguem uma regra determinada e por isso devemos memorizá-los. Por serem numerosos, o mais prático é ir estudando-os pouco a pouco (alguns deles raramente se utilizam).

Infinitivo        Significado                Past tense       Past Participle

To abide          habitar, suportar          abode                abode
To arise          surgir                         arose               arisen
To awake       despertar                   awoke/awaked      awoken/awaked
To be              ser/star                       was                 been
To bear            aguentar                      bore                 borne / born
To beat            golpear                        beat                 beaten
To become     tornar-se                    became           become
To befall         ocontecer                    befell               befallen
To beget          gerar                           begot               begotten
To begin         começar                     began             begun
To behold       observar                      beheld             beheld
To bend          dobrar                         bent                 bent
To bereave      desolar                        bereaved         bereaved/bereft
To beseech      implorar                      besought         besought
To bet             apostar                        betted/bet       betted/bet
To bid             ofertar                         bade/bid          bidden/bid
To bind           vincular, atar               bound             bound
To bite            morder                        bit                   bitten
To bleed          sangrar                        bled                 bled
To blow          soprar                          blew                blown
To break        quebrar, romper            broke              broken
To breed         criar, reproduzir              bred                bred
To bring         trazer                         brought          brought
To broadcast   retransmitir                 broadcast        broadcast
To build          construir                     built                built
To burn           queimar                       burned/burnt      burned/burnt
To burst          explodir                      burst                burst
To buy           comprar                     bought            bought
Can                poder                         could              be able
To cast            lançar/moldar              cast                 cast
To catch         pegar                          caught            caught
To chide          censurar, ralhar           chid                 chidden
To choose       escolher                      chose               chosen
To cleave        cortar/romper              clove/cleft       cloven/cleft
To cling           agarrar                        clung               clung
To clothe         vestir                           clothed/clad       clothed/clad
To come          vir                               came               come
To cost            custar                          cost                 cost
To creep          rastejar/arrastar-se          crept                crept
To crow          cantar, exulatar              crowed/crew       crowed
To cut             cortar                          cut                   cut
To dare           desafiar, ousar            dared/durst        dared/durst
To deal            tratar                           dealt/delt        dealt/delt
To dig             cavar                           dug                 dug
To do              fazer                           did                  done
To draw          desenhar                     drew               drawn
To dream        sonhar                         dreamed/dreamt     dreamed/dreamt
To drink          beber                           drank              drunk
To drive          conduzir                     drove              driven
To dwell         habitar             dwelled/dwelt         dwelled/dwelt
To eat              comer                          ate                   eaten
To fall             cair                              fell                  fallen
To feed           alimentar                     fed                  fed
To feel            sentir                           felt                  felt
To fight           lutar                            fought             fought
To find            encontrar                    found              found
To flee            escapar, fugir              fled                 fled
To fling           atirar, lançar                flung               flung
To fly              voar                            flew                flown
To forbear       tolerar, evitar              forbore            forborne
To forbid        proibir                         forbade           forbidden
To forget        esquecer                     forgot             forgotten
To forgive       perdoar                       forgave           forgiven
To forsake       abandonar                   forsook           forsaken
To freeze         congelar                      froze               frozen
To get             obter                          got                  got
To gild            dourar                         gilded/gilt       gilded/gilt
To gird            zombar                        girded/girt       girded/girt
To give           dar                             gave                given
To go              ir                                 went               gone
To grind          moer                           ground            ground
To grow          crescer                        grew                grown
To hang           pendurar                     hanged/hung      hanged/hung
To have          haver/ter                    had                 had
To hear            ouvir                           heard               heard
To hew            talhar                          hewed             hewed/hewn
To hide           esconder                     hid                  hidden
To hit             acertar, atingir          hit                   hit
To hold          segurar                      held                held
To hurt            ferir, machucar           hurt                 hurt
To keep           manter                        kept                 kept
To kneel          ajoelhar-se                  knelt                knelt
To knit            tecer, tricotar              knit                 knit
To know        saber                          knew              known
To lay             colocar, lançar, por       laid                 laid
To lead            guiar, conduzir           led                   led
To lean            inclinar                        leaned/leant       leaned/leant
To leap            saltar, pular                 leaped/leapt       leaped/leapt
To learn         aprender                    learned/learnt      learned/learnt
To leave         deixar                         left                  left
To lend           emprestar                    lent                  lent
To let              deixar, permitir           let                    let
To lie              mentir, deitar-se        lay                   lain
To light           acender                       lighted/lit        lighted/lit
To lose            perder                         lost                  lost
To make         fazer, produzir          made              made
May                poder                         might              ----
To mean          significar                     meant/ment       meant/ment
To meet           encontrar, reunir-se         met                  met
To mow          cortar, ceifar               mowed            mowed/mown
Must               obrigação, ter de       had to             ----
Ought             deber, convir             ----                   ----
To pay            pagar                         paid                paid
To put            colocar                       put                  put
To read           ler                               read/red          read/red
To rend           rasgar                          rent                 rent
To rid              librar, eliminar rid                   rid
To ride            montar (a cavalo)        rode                ridden
To ring            cercar, rodear              rang                 rung
To rise            subir                           rose                 risen
To run            correr                         ran                  run
To saw            serrar                           sawed             sawed/sawn
To say            dizer                           said                 said
To see             ver                              saw                 seen
To seek           buscar                         sought             sought
To sell             vender                        sold                 sold
To send           enviar                          sent                 sent
To set              establecer, pôr             set                   set
To sew            costurar                       sewed             sewed/sewn
To shake         tremer, agitar              shook              shaken
Shall               dever (auxiliar futuro)       should            ----
To shear          tosquiar                       sheared/shore       sheared/shorn
To shed           derramar, verter          shed                shed
To shine          brilhar                         shone              shone
To shoe           calçar                          shoed/shod     shoed/shod
To shoot          atirar, disparar             shot                shot
To show          mostrar                       showed           showed/shown
To shrink         escolher                      shrank             shrunk
To shut            fechar, cerrar              shut                 shut
To sing            cantar                          sang                sung
To sink            afundar                       sank                sunk
To sit               sentar-se                     sat                   sat
To slay            matar, destruir            slew                slain
To sleep          dormir                         slept                slept
To slide           deslizar, escorregar     slid                  slid
To sling           lançar, atirar                slung               slung
To slink           escapulir                     slunk               slunk
To slit              cortar                          slit                   slit
To smell          cheirar                         smelled/smelt          smelled/smelt
To smite          golpear                        smote              smitten
To sow            semear                        sowed             sowed/sown
To speak         falar                            spoke              spoken
To speed         acelerar                       speeded/sped        speeded/sped
To spell           soletrar, escrever        spelled/spelt         spelled/spelt
To spend         gastar                          spent               spent
To spill            derramar                     spilled/spilt          spilled/spilt
To spin            girar, dar voltas          spun                spun
To spit             cuspir, lançar              spat                 spat
To split            dividir                         split                 split
To spread        espalhar, estender           spread             spread
To spring         saltar, pular                 sprang             sprung
To stand          suportar, levantar-se        stood               stood
To steal           robar                           stole                stolen
To stick           fincar, meter               stuck               stuck
To sting           picar                            stung               stung
To stink           feder                           stank/stunk     stunk
To strew          espalhar, disseminar        strewed           strewed/strewn
To stride         andar, galgar               strode              stridden
To strike          atacar, golpear            struck              struck
To string         amarrar, esticar           strung              strung
To strive          lutar, esforçar-se         strove              striven
To swear         jurar                            swore              sworn
To sweep        varrer                          swept              swept
To swell          inchar                          swelled           swelled/swollen
To swim          nadar                          swam              swum
To swing         balançar                      swung             swung
To take            pegar, tomar               took                taken
To teach          ensinar                        taught             taught
To tear            rasgar                          tore                 torn
To tell             dizer                           told                 told
To think          pensar                         thought           thought
To thrive         prosperar                     thrived/throve       thrived/thriven
To throw         jogar, atirar                 threw              thrown
To thrust         empurrar, cavar           thrust              thrust
To tread          pisar, andar                 trod                 trodden / trod
To understand    comprender                understood     understood
To undertake     emprender, aceitar          undertook       undertaken
To wake          acordar                       waked/woke   waked/woken
To wear           usar, vestir                  wore                worn
To weave        tecer, entrelaçar          wove               woven
To weep          chorar                         wept                wept
To wet            molhar, banhar            wetted/wet     wetted/wet
Will               querer (auxiliar futuro)         would             --
To win            ganhar                         won                 won
To wind          ventar, serpentear           wound            wound
To wring         torcer, espremer              wrung             wrung
           To write          escrever                      wrote              written

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